Claudia P. Sanmiguel, David Geffen Schoo of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA
Obesity is a global health threat affecting a large number of individuals living in the Latin American region. Gut-microbiota (GM) is a major regulator of the energy homeostasis in health and in obesity. This review attempts to summarize some of the most relevant information about mechanisms mediating interactions between the GM and the host's brain-gut axis in the regulation of appetite and ingestive behaviors. This review goes beyond the data on obesity-related changes in GM composition to describe some of the microbial-derived products that are directly or indirectly involved in modulating the signaling from and to the enteroendocrine cells, the enteric nervous system and vagus nerve to the brain centers in charge of regulating hunger, satiety and ingestive behaviors. Momentous progress has been achieved in this field in the past few years, and there advances carry the promise of innovative ways to prevent and to treat obesity.
Keywords: Obesity. Brain gut-microbiome axis. Microbial metabolites. Metabolomics. Short-chain fatty acids. Amino acids.